Dominated by Castle Rock, Edinburgh is in turn dominated by the castle on the rock. Constrained by the need for protective city walls, Edinburgh old town was constrained with the Flodden Wall throughout the Middle Ages. A series of wars with the English ensured that the town remained behind the wall - in 1544 the English failed to take the castle, but burnt the town. Edinburgh was in need of its city walls for centuries
It was only after the Act of Union with England in 1707, and the subsequent defeat of the Jacobites, that the English kings felt secure enough to start work on the great Georgian New Town in the late 18th century, using a series of squares as seen below. The young architect, James Craig, was chosen to design the new town. His scheme is classical, but recognisably Scottish
A strong cultural influence developed in Edinburgh in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was known as the Scottish Enlightenment, and included the philosopher David Hume, the first economist Adam Smith, , the poet Robert Burns, the painter Allan Ramsey, Sir Walter Scott.
Today Edinburgh is known for its shopping in Princes Street, for the Royal Mile and for the Festival. The new Scottish Assembly sits in Edinburgh
A ever-changing scene to tax the photographer by day or by night
And to the north is the bridge over the Firth of Forth and the port of Leith
Some of the things to see in Edinburgh